Publishing Tips

The Library provides in this area specific information to support students and researchers who intend to publish their work.


Publish for what?

An Author publishes his work to:

  • Present new and original results and methods;
  • Exchange ideas and communicate among peers;
  • Credibility of results;
  • Awards and funding;
  • Recognition and career advancement in research;
  • Prestige and personal satisfaction.


Ethical aspects of scientific publishing

In the context of scientific publication, the following ethical aspects, among others, must be taken into consideration:

  • The work to be submitted to a given journal must not have been published previously;
  • A paper should never be submitted to more than one journal simultaneously.
  • The publication to be submitted must be previously approved by the several co-authors and responsible entities;
  • Authors' copyright permissions must have been obtained;
  • Not to incur in scientific fraud (i.e. lack of rigor in the information, invalid or fraudulent science, or plagiarism).


Structuring information - IMRaD format

There must be special care in defining the structure of an article. Thus:

  • One must start by choosing the scientific name to be adopted for publication throughout the scientific and academic life, so that it can be easily identified and searched in databases;
  • One must obey the rules for Affiliation recommended by UNL and NMS. The correct and consistent use of institutional addresses is fundamental so that scientific production isn’t underestimated when loading data and publications into PURE and so that NMS receives due credit for its publications and citations received;
  • The better defined are: Title + Authors + Abstract + Keywords (Introduction, Methodology, Discussion and Conclusion, References) the greater the chance of being "discovered".

One of the most used ways of structuring a scientific paper in biomedicine is the IMRaD format, which stands for: Introduction - Methods - Results - and - Discussion.

  • Introduction - Why was the study undertaken? to show what you know about the chosen field of study/research project, containing an explanation and synthesis, but also using questions, clarification, comparisons. 
  • Method - When, where and how was the study done? to demonstrate how you achieved your results by applying valid and rigorous methods, explaining what research, treatment, or professional intervention you did and how.
  • Results - What did the study find? how it reached its results and their significance through the Introduction.
  • Discussion - Why does the answer matter? discuss the results of the study/scientific project by comparisons with other studies, alternative explanations, identifying strengths and weaknesses of the study, practical implications of the study, recommendations to apply in practice, and whether there is a need for further research on the subject.
  • Conclusion - To conclude your study, you can mention what answers you found to counter the initial question and should not introduce issues that have not been addressed before. If the results of your study don’t allow you to draw conclusions, you can end with a summary of the study.


Where to publish?

The selection of the journal to which to submit the article is one of the factors that most enhances the impact of the research. This selection should meet the needs of the researcher according to his/her line of research and objectives.

Authors seeking greater recognition and visibility of their work tend to submit their articles to journals with an Impact Factor.


Useful resources and links for journal evaluation: